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Epidemiology vs. Public Health: What’s The Difference?

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Epidemiology and public health are two closely related fields that play crucial roles in safeguarding the well-being of communities and populations and preventing diseases. While both fields share common goals, they differ in their roles, objectives, and areas of focus.

In this article, we discuss the terms epidemiology and public health, how they differ as well as the relationship between them.

What is Epidemiology?

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the distribution of diseases that aims to understand the patterns and causes of health risks and diseases in communities. It investigates the causes, occurrence and spread of diseases within a specific population. Epidemiologists study patterns, risk factors and effects of diseases to help other public health practitioners figure out prevention and control measures.

What Does an Epidemiologist Do?

Epidemiologists are the detectives of public health. They are responsible for a variety of tasks, including:

  1. Data Collection: Epidemiologists gather data on health-related events, such as disease outbreaks, by monitoring hospitals, clinics, and laboratories.
  2. Data Analysis: They use statistical methods to analyze the collected data, identifying trends and patterns that may indicate disease clusters or outbreaks.
  3. Disease Surveillance: Epidemiologists conduct disease surveillance to track the spread of diseases, enabling early intervention and prevention strategies.
  4. Risk Assessment: They assess the risk factors associated with various health issues, providing valuable information to policymakers.
  5. Outbreak Investigation: Epidemiologists investigate disease outbreaks, helping to identify the source of infection and prevent further spread.


What is Public Health?

Public health, on the other hand, covers a broader range of activities and initiatives aimed at promoting and protecting the health of communities and populations. It incorporates various fields across multiple disciplines, including epidemiology, to address health challenges on a larger scale. Public health focuses on prevention, health promotion, policy development, and healthcare system improvement.

While epidemiology is a core component of public health, public health extends beyond the study of diseases to include areas such as health policy, environmental health, and community education.

Starting A Career In Public Health in Australia

Careers in Public Health

Each career within the field of public health serves a unique role in improving the health and well-being of communities and populations. Epidemiology is just one part of public health. There are various careers under the umbrella of public health. Here are some other careers in public health:

  1. Health Educators

Health educators are responsible for designing and implementing health education programs aimed at promoting healthy behaviours and improving the overall health of communities. They work with diverse populations to develop strategies for preventing health issues and encouraging people to make informed decisions about their health.

  1. Health Policy Analysts

Health policy analysts are experts in public health policy development and analysis. They work on shaping and evaluating health policies and strategies to improve community health and healthcare systems. These professionals play a key role in ensuring that policies are evidence-based and aligned with the overall goals of public health.

  1. Environmental Health Specialists

Environmental health specialists focus on assessing and reducing environmental factors that can impact public health. They work to ensure that the air, water, food, and other aspects of the environment are safe and do not pose health risks to communities. Their work is critical in preventing environmental health hazards and promoting healthier living conditions.

  1. Public Health Nurses

Public health nurses are registered nurses who specialize in public health. They play a crucial role in delivering healthcare services to individuals and communities while emphasizing health education and promotion. Public health nurses bridge the gap between clinical care and community health.


Though epidemiology and public health have distinct focuses, they are interconnected and work collaboratively. Epidemiologists provide critical data and insights that inform public health interventions and policies. Their research findings help public health professionals understand the impact of diseases on populations and guide the development of effective strategies.



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